APJDD Vol 8 No 2 (Jul 2021)

APJDD Vol 8 No 2 (Jul 2021)

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1. Editorial Comment

1. Editorial Comment

Angela J. Fawcett, Editor-in-Chief

 

It is a very great pleasure to publish this issue of the Asian Pacific Journal of Developmental Differences, now in its 8th year of publication, which is published by the Dyslexia Association of Singapore. The response to the previous issues continues to be extremely gratifying, and we maintain these high standards in this issue and forthcoming issues. We are grateful for the support of the academics and professionals involved in resolving any issues arising, and ensuring our journal maintains high professional and ethical standards.


In this issue, we highlight some of the issues arising from the COVID pandemic, which has impacted so severely worldwide, not just in terms of the mounting death toll, but also in terms of the many restrictions within our societies. This has meant that many children have been home schooled or have engaged in remote schooling.  In the first article in this issue, a case study analysis of the impact of Home-based learning on dyslexic children was undertaken, including children from primary and secondary schools in Singapore, by Tay Hui Yong and Siti Asjamiah bte Asmuri. The findings, on interviewing both children and their mothers, indicated that many dyslexic children struggled with the demands of typing for example, and with a system that necessarily had been set up at short notice without enough capacity to accommodate the needs of children with special needs. It is clear that key components here are the support of families in ensuring the ongoing emotional well-being of all children in these difficult circumstances. In the second article here, by Sui, with comprehensive analysis in a large-scale study examined the factors affecting parental efficacy, a key component of success for these children with a range of special needs. Although not addressed specifically to the pandemic, there are a number of clear lessons to be learnt. This article revealed that for this Hong Kong based study, the impact of ASD and ADHD was greater in terms of parental stress than other learning difficulties, with important factors including economic and environmental access to support. A need for more widespread social and community support was identified as a vital step forward to ensure more positive outcomes.

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2. Dyslexic Children’s Experience of Home-Based Learning During School Closures: 4 Case Studies

2. Dyslexic Children’s Experience of Home-Based Learning During School Closures: 4 Case Studies

Tay Hui Yong and Siti Asjamiah bte Asmuri


1. National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
2. Dyslexia Association of Singapore


Abstract

During the coronavirus pandemic, schools across the world shut down and education was transferred online, with the education of half a million students in Singapore continued through “Home-based Learning” (HBL), delivered through online platforms, including the Student Learning Space (SLS), accessible to all schools. A system was developed to ensure that economically deprived families who lacked equipment could borrow this from school, and those with no internet connection at home could return to school to engage in online learning. By contrast, specialized support for children with special needs was not necessarily designed to address these needs. The impact of this on the potential 20,000 dyslexic learners in Singapore forms an important research area for further investigation. The current study gathered empirical evidence through one-to-one interviews of 4 students (2 from primary schools and 2 from secondary schools). Taking an ecological approach, the study also analysed the context of school, family and beyond. Hence, the study examined the participants’ lessons and assignments as well as interviewed their mothers in order to form a complementary picture to answer the research question on their experiences of learning during HBL. The interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed together with the artefacts for emergent themes across the cases. Data analysis surfaced 3 themes: dyslexic-(un)friendly use of technology, feedback-focused pedagogy and social-emotional support. These findings will help guide professional development for teachers in mainstream classes who design e-learning experiences for inclusive classes with dyslexic students.


Keywords: Dyslexia, distance learning, online learning, school closure, inclusive classrooms

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3.  Factors influencing well-being and parenting self-efficacy of parents of children with special needs and the developmental outcomes of their children

3. Factors influencing well-being and parenting self-efficacy of parents of children with special needs and the developmental outcomes of their children

Angela F. Y. Siu and Anna N. N. Hui


1. Chinese University of Hong Kong
2. City University of Hong Kong


Abstract


Child characteristics and family demographics are important factors influencing the degree of parental well-being and parenting self-efficacy. Parents of children with special needs have reported more parental stress, depression, health problems, and poor parenting self-efficacy compared with parents of typically developing children. However, limited research has provided an overview of the effects of family demographics and child characteristics on parents’ well-being and parenting self-efficacy in Asian countries. This quantitative study examined the effects of children’s disabilities types and family demographics with well-being and parenting self-efficacy of parents (N = 420) of children with special needs aged ranged from 2.83 to 7.17. Family income, parental education level, work status, and parental age were found to be effective demographic variables predicting the well-being and parenting self-efficacy of parents of children with disabilities. Limitations and future research directions are presented.


Keywords: children with special needs, parents, well-being, parenting self-efficacy

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4. Evaluating the longitudinal progress of a large sample of dyslexic children in reading, spelling and writing.

4. Evaluating the longitudinal progress of a large sample of dyslexic children in reading, spelling and writing.

Sharyfah Nur Fitriya


1. Dyslexia Association of Singapore


ABSTRACT


The purpose of this research was to demonstrate whether the reading and writing skills of dyslexic students in the English Main Literacy intervention programme in Singapore could be improved in a statistically significant manner using improved curriculum teaching methods. A statistically significant result would validate the improvement in the transfer of knowledge to the students due to the educational intervention. This study evaluated the progress made from 1343 students aged 7-17 enrolled in the English Main Literacy intervention programme for six school terms from 2016 to 2018. All participants were assessed using a Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA), which focuses on three test items: words to read, words to spell, and writing tests. The test items were analysed using the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and hypothesis testing. Test scores were analysed comparing means across three years, with a Z-score calculated to determine the findings' statistical significance. The mean scores of the students increased from an average mean of 48.54 in 2016 to 62.43. The calculated Z score of 1.65 yielded a probability of p<.05, with a probability level of 95%. Therefore, the Z score did indicate a significant improvement. This supported the research hypothesis that the literacy program demonstrates a statistically significant improvement in reading and writing scores in a population of dyslexic students. The findings from this research show that the English Main Literacy intervention programme is an evidence-based practice, and the results increase the validity of the intervention.


Keywords: assessment, statistical significance, dyslexia, Central Limit Theorem (CLT), hypothesis testing

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