Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and Maths Learning Difficulties
As our knowledge of the theoretical bases of learning difficulties has improved so has awareness in schools. The key to meeting the demands that that awareness brings lies in training teachers. I believe that it would be beneficial to include our knowledge of why some children find learning difficult in all teacher-training so that it is available at that critical interface between learner and teacher.
Phonological Skills and Dyslexia
There is unanimous agreement that problems with phonological processing are associated with both dyslexia and problems in reading. The phonological deficit hypothesis has been one of the major hypotheses for over 30 years now, but it is still hotly debated what exactly phonology comprises, and the subsequent implications from theory to practice. This is reflected in differences in the definition of dyslexia. The British Dyslexia Association definition (2007) notes problems in phonological processing, whereas the Rose Dyslexia Review (2009) notes difficulties in phonological awareness. In a recent meta-analysis, Lervag, Lyster and Hulme (2102) examined 235 studies that included phonemic awareness, rime awareness (Goswami and Bryant, 1990) and verbal short-term memory (Gathercole and Baddeley, 1990) in relation to reading. They aimed to resolve the controversy on the comparative role of these components on phonological processing. The findings of the meta-analysis showed that there was a major role theoretically for phonemic awareness as a predictor of reading ability, even taking into account rime and verbal short-term memory.
Study Skills for Dyslexic Adults in Higher Education
Dr Margaret Meehan has a PhD in chemistry and is the coordinator of specialist tuition for the Academic success programme at Swansea University. Margaret is co-author with Barbara Pavey of Dyslexia Friendly Further and Higher Education and Dyslexia friendly toolkit.
Dyslexia in Adolescent Dyslexics and Students
Many people think that dyslexia is a problem that is found only in children, and mostly in young children at that. However, dyslexia is a difference in the way the brain processes which therefore persists throughout life. It has been legally acknowledged in the United Kingdom (UK) and elsewhere across the world that dyslexic students in higher education continue to need support (Disability Discrimination Act, 1995; 2005; SENDA, 2002).